Bathhurst Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" encompasses different pathological conditions affecting the tissues and organs which make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease includes conditions of the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity in addition to the muscles and nerves responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild such as the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like for example lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a medical doctor specializing in this field in particular is referred to as a pulmonologist. Other names utilized for this particular medical practitioner comprise: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
There are numerous classifications used for the several respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of related symptoms and signs, or based on the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Several examples comprise: acute respiratory distress syndrome, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.
Allergic reactions are a common reason for acute respiratory disease. This is due to the exposure to different agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods could consist of lemon, radish, sea foods like some fatty fish and prawns, bananas, peanuts, pomegranates, dairy and ice creams, lemon, arrowroot, lady's finger and berries. Climate can likewise affect some individuals as sandy and dusty climate during summer can make the quality of air poor for people who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways consisting of the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, hence making it more difficult to move air into and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases result in incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or likewise referred to as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whatever part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into lower respiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract particular organs can include pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection typically due to bacteria, generally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia throughout the globe. Various viruses and fungi can cause pneumonia as well, like for example acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity comprises mesothelioma and emphysema. A build up of fluid within the pleural cavity is known as a pleural effusion. This can be due to situations like for example cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, since the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can even happen from pleura inflammation, TB, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and different conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura which helps to cover the lungs, where air is allowed in the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air is unable to escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the blood vessels and the heart, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are some conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation. Instances of these diseases comprise: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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