Epilepsy Bathhurst - The term epilepsy is derived from the Ancient Greek word that means "seizure." It is a common neurological disorder that is defined by seizures. These seizures are symptoms or transient symptoms, indications of abnormal, excessive or hyper-synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy typically occurs in young children or those individuals who are over the age of 65, however, it can occur at whichever time. All around the world, more than 50 million individuals have epilepsy. Approximately 2 out of every 3 cases are discovered in developing countries. Epileptic seizures may also result as a consequence of brain surgery and individuals recovering from such surgical procedure can experience them.
The condition of epilepsy is usually controlled with medication, even if it is not cured in this manner. Even on the best medications, over thirty percent of patients with epilepsy do not have seizure control. In a lot of situations, surgery could be considered difficult. In several situations, not all epilepsy syndromes are considered lifelong. Some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood.
The disorder of epilepsy should not be just considered one single disorder. On the other hand, it should be noted as a syndrome with variously divergent symptoms which involve episodic abnormal electrical activity within the brain. Seizure types are organized primarily based on whether the source of the seizure is localized as in focal or partial onset seizures or whether they are more distributed or generalized seizures.
Partial seizures are then further divided on the extent to which part of the consciousness is affected. For instance, if it is unaffected, then it is considered a simple partial seizure, whereas otherwise, it is known as a complex partial or complex psychomotor seizure. Secondary generalization is the term when a partial seizure can spread within the brain. Generalized seizures include loss of consciousness and are divided according to the effect on the body. These consist of tonic clonic or grand mal, atonic, clonic or tonic, myoclonic or petit mal seizures.
At times children could exhibit certain behaviours which are easily mistaken for epileptic seizures that are not in fact caused by epilepsy. These behaviours consist of: benign shudders, inattentive staring, self gratification behaviours like for instance nodding and rocking, head banging, conversion disorder, which is jerking and flailing of the head usually in response to extreme personal stress as such will incur in a case of physical abuse. Conversion disorder could be distinguished from epilepsy because the episodes do not comprise self-injury, incontinence or take place during sleep.
Just as there are kinds of seizures, there are many different kinds of epilepsy syndromes. The classifications include facts about the patient and about the episodes, in addition to the seizure type. It also includes expected causes and clinical features like for instance behaviour during the seizure.
Epilepsy includes more than forty various kinds, among which are: frontal lobe epilepsy, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, LennoxGastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, status epilepticus, limbic epilepsy, abdominal epilepsy, Rett syndrome, limbic epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, Lafora disease, photosensitive epilepsy and Jacksonian seizure disorder, amongst others.
Every type of epilepsy will have its own EEG findings, usual age of onset, unique combination of seizure type, own types of treatment and prognosis. The classification that is most common divides epilepsy syndromes by distribution of seizures and by location. This is determined by how the seizures appear, by cause and by EEG. Syndromes are divided into generalized epilepsies, localization-related epilepsies and epilepsies of unknown localization.
usually localization-related epilepsies are called partial or focal epilepsies. These types arise from an epileptic focus, a small portion of the brain that serves as the irritant driving the epileptic response. In contrast, generalized epilepsies happen from various independent foci and are known as multifocal epilepsies. These could comprise epileptic circuits which affect the whole brain. At this time it has not been determined whether epilepsies of unknown localization occur from a portion of the brain or from more widespread circuits.
Click to Download the pdf